A Primer on Revelation 14:9-11


One of the most key passages used to defend the traditional view of hell is Revelation 14:9-11.

Then another angel, a third one, followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives a mark on his forehead or on his hand, he also will drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is mixed in full strength in the cup of His anger; and he will be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment goes up forever and ever; they have no rest day and night, those who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name. (NASB)

Although we have a number of articles on interpreting the book of Revelation and on related matters, and although the passage has been addressed in the Rethinking Hell podcast as well as in free resources outside of Rethinking Hell, a nice primer article addressing this passage was long past due.

Now, compared to Revelation 20:10, explaining how this passage is compatible with evangelical conditionalism (if not evidence in favor of the doctrine) will be fairly simple. Once the Old Testament background of the language and imagery of the passage is made clear, any reasonable observer should see why a conditionalist interpretation is at least reasonable. The reason this article is something of a primer is because whether or not a conditionalist interpretation is  reasonable, there is still some substantial debate about whether the traditionalist or conditionalist interpretation is best.1 Such discussion takes us much deeper into the weeds, and additional resources for a deeper look will be in the notes below.2

Conditionalists also have different approaches as to explaining why the conditionalist interpretation is best, so perhaps in future articles here at Rethinking Hell you might see different takes on the passage from among Rethinking Hell contributors.

For the time being, let me explain why this passage is not nearly as clear-cut in teaching eternal torment as it may seem at first glance.

What This Passage Does and Does Not Say

Why is this passage pointed to as teaching eternal torment in the first place? After all, it never literally says that anyone will be tormented for ever and ever the way that Revelation 20:10 – and only Revelation 20:10 – literally states. What the passage says, when taken literally, is that a group of people will be tormented in fire and sulfur, and that the smoke will rise for ever and ever.

The reason eternal torment is read from this passage is from the following line of reasoning:

  1. The burning alive of the worshippers of the beast creates smoke that rises.
  2. The smoke rises for ever and ever.
  3. If the smoke rises for ever and ever, then the source, the burning, continues for ever and ever.
  4. The burning causes torment.
  5. Therefore, the unsaved are tormented in fire for ever and ever.

Of course, I should point out that many traditionalists today who appeal to this passage don’t believe there is literal fire in hell (which causes its own set of problems).3 Some don’t even believe there is any actual physical pain or other externally imposed misery placed on the unsaved by God in his wrath (which causes even more problems).4

It seems rather odd to base your doctrine of hell on the fact that this passage seemingly speaks of people burning and being tortured forever when you don’t actually believe that people in hell burn or are tortured, doesn’t it? But that aside, it does make sense that one would see this and infer that it teaches eternal burning (and therefore eternal torment) – that is, if the language is meant literally and is not referencing any sort of Old Testament idiom that referred to destruction.

The Old Testament Background Changes Everything

However, the image of rising smoke, and even the claim of smoke rising forever, is in fact an Old Testament idiom that describes destruction, not ongoing burning (let alone ongoing torment).

It really is that simple. We have precedent from elsewhere in scripture to see smoke rising forever as figurative of destruction, not ongoing burning. And we must allow scripture to interpret scripture. This does not prove that it was meant the same way in Revelation 14:9-11. It does, however, make such a conclusion reasonable.

The key passage is Isaiah 34:9-10, a prophecy against the kingdom of Edom:

Its streams will be turned into pitch, And its loose earth into brimstone, And its land will become burning pitch. It will not be quenched night or day; Its smoke will go up forever. From generation to generation it will be desolate; None will pass through it forever and ever. (Emphasis added)

You can see some key parallels to the destruction of Edom and the fate of the beast worshippers in Revelation. For example, both warnings include a declaration that the harmful, violent activity against those in view will not be stopped “night or day.”

Of most significance, however, is Isaiah’s declaration that after Edom is burned and destroyed, “its smoke will go up forever.” Wait a minute; following the traditionalist logic applied to Revelation 14:11 (and it is reasonable logic on its own), if the smoke rises forever, the fire must continue burning forever. And yet, that is not the case in Isaiah!

Isaiah is speaking of a kingdom that was to be destroyed. We know from history that Edom was destroyed, as Isaiah (and Obadiah) predicted. We also are all pretty sure that there is not some pit in the Middle East that is still burning to this day. How then could Isaiah be correct when he says that the smoke will rise forever?

The simplest explanation is that Isaiah, probably the most poetic and hyperbolic of all the Old Testament prophets, was being figurative, perhaps relying even on an idiom that may have existed at the time. The smoke would not actually rise forever. It wouldn’t even rise for such an extended period of time that one would reasonably call if “forever” (more on that below). Nevertheless, the smoke rising was figurative of the destruction of what had been burned, so Isaiah was being really emphatic by saying the smoke would not only rise, but would rise forever.

Ever-rising Smoke Actually Makes Sense as a Symbol of Destruction

The association between destruction and rising smoke was not new to Isaiah. In Genesis 19, after Sodom and Gomorrah is destroyed with burning sulfur from the heavens, Abraham looked out the next morning and saw that “the smoke of the land ascended like the smoke of a furnace” (Verse 28). In the Bible’s most infamous instance of divine judgment by means of fiery death and destruction, the inspired author made sure to take note of the rising smoke ascending from the smoldering ruins.

With that in mind, it makes sense that Isaiah would use the imagery of rising smoke to show the destruction of Edom. Rising smoke is a picture of a city having just been destroyed with fire. In ancient times, it would have been much more familiar imagery to the reader. And while technically, smoldering and spot fires that cause smoke are still an example of burning, that would not have been the point. The point would be to call attention to what it looks like right after the conquering hordes have left. The smoke rising emphasizes destruction, not the burning process. The smoke rising forever makes the point that Edom will never be rebuilt. It will (figuratively) always be in that state of smoldering ruins.

The Significance of Isaiah’s Reference to Smoke Rising Forever

Whatever the case, Isaiah was not saying that Edom would be burning forever because, again, there is no continually smoking pit in the middle east from where the smoke could have been rising forever. Therefore, we have an example in the Bible of smoke that rises forever that does not speak of continual burning, but of the destruction of what was burned.

Considering the fact that the Bible has zero examples of smoke rising forever that unambiguously uses the image to show continual burning, it is hardly unreasonable to think that Revelation may be borrowing from the language of Isaiah 34:9-10 (and the imagery of that verse and Genesis 19:28) to make the point that the unsaved will be destroyed.

A conditionalist interpretation of Revelation 14:9-11 becomes all the more reasonable when you take into account just heavily the book of Revelation relies on Old Testament imagery. Everything from the temple incense representing prayers of the saints (Revelation 5:8) to the infamous beast of Revelation (based on Daniel’s vision in Daniel 7) to the four living creatures in Revelation 4:6-8 (which are based on the vision if Ezekiel 1) comes from the Old Testament. Old Testament allusions and references are abundant in the book of Revelation.5

Revelation was not written in a vacuum. Therefore, we must accept that the use of Old Testament language and idioms in Revelation at least could reasonably be there to allude to the meaning of the original passage being referenced.

A Few Basic Objections

As with many matters of theology and Bible interpretation, there is a lot that could be written for and against the explanation I have put forth. Two key objections deserve our attention here.

1. Revelation Says Smoke “of Their Torment” So It Is Different

One might counter that the difference between Isaiah 34:10 and Revelation 14:11 is that the Revelation passage mentions torment. Not just the smoke rises for ever and ever, but specifically, the smoke of their torment rises forever. Therefore, it is speaking of ongoing conscious punishment and not destruction.

The problem with this rebuttal is that this specification, the reference to torment, has nothing to do with duration. It doesn’t really even address my argument from Isaiah. The whole point of me pointing to Isaiah is to challenge the very assumption that a reference to ever-rising smoke means that there will be everlasting burning. That underlying assumption is necessary to the eternal torment argument from Revelation 14:9-11. If we have reason to believe that a “smoke rising forever” reference is not meant to indicate everlasting burning, then the reference to torment is moot.

And we do have reason to challenge this assumption, because the one time we see smoke rising forever outside of the book of Revelation, it is symbolic of swift destruction.

Imagine if Isaiah had said not just “its smoke will rise forever” but rather “the smoke of its burning will rise forever.” This would change nothing. In fact, Isaiah does say “the smoke of their burning,” just not in so many words. It is implied because smoke is the result of burning – just as the smoke in Revelation is the result of the torment (i.e. the burning that causes torment because torment itself doesn’t actually make smoke). Isaiah is speaking of an ongoing action, i.e. burning. Taken literally, his words would indicate that the ongoing action continues forever.

But we don’t take what he says literally. We know it is symbolic of destruction and not continual burning because the kingdom in question was destroyed and there is no burning hole in the Middle East where the smoke of Edom rises forever…

Of course, when you already believe in eternal torment, any reference to “torment” will understandably make your ears shoot up and incline you to read your already developed view of hell into the text. Similar things can be said about any number of doctrines. But we must be able to overcome that kind of inclination if we want to see what the Bible actually teaches.

The two passages are very similar. If the reasoning applied to Revelation 14:9-11 were applied to Isaiah 34:9-10, it would make Isaiah’s words mean something that would frankly be unreasonable in the context. The mention of “torment” is not material enough to change this. And if the passages are not materially different, then the way one passage uses language is a legitimate factor to consider when interpreting the other.

2. “Forever” Vs. “For Ever and Ever”

The second objection I will address here is that while Isaiah mentioned smoke rising “forever” (Hebrew l’olam), Revelation 14:11 speaks of smoke rising for ever and ever (Greek eis aionios aionion).

The rebuttal would be that Isaiah could be speaking literally, as derivations of olam do not always mean for eternity, but sometimes only for a long, usually undetermined period of time. Therefore Isaiah would not be using ever-rising smoke as an idiom for destruction., He would be speaking literally about smoke rising for a long time. Therefore, we would have no reason to think that the smoke rising in Revelation 14:11 is anything but smoke literally rising for ever and ever (and thus, the fiery torture continuing for ever and ever).6

For our purposes, it is not necessary to get into the intricacies of the Greek of Revelation 14:11 vs. the Hebrew of Isaiah 34:10. Let us grant that the “forever” of Isaiah is not as strong as the “for ever and ever” of Isaiah. It is still not reasonable to think Isaiah was being literal. It is still not reasonable to say that Isaiah was speaking of continual burning “forever” as opposed to using the image of smoke rising “forever” as symbolic of destruction.

This is because, even if olam is not intended here to convey eternal endlessness, it still does mean a very long time. The word olam denotes the idea of the time being long and indefinite. Strong defines it as “generally, time out of mind (past or future), i.e. (practically) eternity.”7 One analogy is one looking out over the horizon. The horizon is the furthest point a person can see, and if you could see time, olam would indicate time going past the horizon.8 Whatever the specifics of Isaiah 34:10‘s use of l’olam, it is not speaking of a short, definite time period.

A kingdom being destroyed by fire, however, would take place within a short, definite time period. While one would not know exactly how long it would last, it would be definite in that you know it would be over in a matter of hours or days, not generations.

Even if Isaiah does not mean the smoke rises for eternity, he at least speaks of it rising beyond  the foreseeable future, which could not be literal. It still is figurative, using a figure of destruction that people of the time would understand well (especially in light of Genesis 19:28). In this case, the distinction between “forever” and “for ever and ever” is a distinction without a difference.


To sum all of that up, the point is that Revelation 14:9-11 seems like it teaches eternal torment on its face – until you dig deeper. Once the Old Testament background is understood, once you look at the only reference to perpetually rising smoke outside of the book of Revelation, there is, at the very least, a reasonable alternative to the traditionalist understanding of this passage.

One could further argue that this passage is in fact evidence for conditionalism. After all, in a book that is saturated with Old Testament imagery and language, the fate of the lost is described using the same language as the fiery and permanent destruction of a godless empire. This phenomenon of a passage used to prove the doctrine of eternal torment actually lending some weight to the doctrine of evangelical conditionalism is something you will likely see in many other instances if you keep studying the topic.


  1. I’ll be frank: in my experience, most traditionalist works that cite Revelation 14:9-11 don’t address the stronger conditionalist rebuttals, like the one below, if they acknowledge any rebuttals at all. They simply take it for granted that this passage teaches eternal torment. One notable exception is Gregory K. Beale’s contribution to Hell under Fire, edited by Robert Peterson and Christopher Morgan. []
  2. Additional (free!) resources on Revelation 14:9-11 include:

    - Rethinking Hell podcast, Episode 7.

    - “A Conditionalist Reading of the Book of Revelation” by William Tanksley, Jr. and Chris Date, presented at the 2015 Rethinking Hell Conference.

    - The Bible Teaches Annihilationism by Joseph Dear (see Section XV).

    - Does Revelation 14:11 Teach Eternal Torment? by Ralph Bowles. []

  3. For more on this, see here. []
  4. See our three part series of articles on how the tortureless, fireless version of hell that may traditionalists advocate today is foreign to church history – nullifying the strongest argument the traditional view has. – Part 1Part 2Part 3. []
  5. For more on the ubiquity of Old Testament imagery in the book of Revelation, see “Annihilation in Revelation, Part 2: In With the Old – in the New” by Chris Date. []
  6. Again, never mind the fact that many traditionalists who appeal to this passage deny the fiery and some even deny the torture… []
  7. James Strong, Greek and Hebrew Dictionary of the Bible, (Miklal, 2011), Kindle Edition, location 25510. []
  8. Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Dictionary: 1000 Verbs and Nouns of the Hebrew Bible (Virtual Book Worm, 2009), 128. []
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  • Webb Mealy

    The natural reading of Isaiah 34 as a whole concerns an eschatological crisis, not a historical judgment. The first verses of the chapter read,

    34:1 Draw near, O nations, to hear;
    O peoples, give heed!
    Let the earth hear, and all that fills it;
    the world, and all that comes from it.
    2 For the Lord is enraged against all the nations,
    and furious against all their hordes;
    he has doomed them, has given them over for slaughter.
    3 Their slain shall be cast out,
    and the stench of their corpses shall rise;
    the mountains shall flow with their blood.
    4 All the host of heaven shall rot away,
    and the skies roll up like a scroll.
    All their host shall wither
    like a leaf withering on a vine,
    or fruit withering on a fig tree.

    Note the reference to “all the nations” (v. 2). John alludes to v. 2 in Rev. 11:18; v. 3 in 14:19; v. 4 in 6:13-14. I would argue that all three of these passages in Revelation concern the moment of eschatological crisis when Jesus comes in glory as judge of the living and the dead. John and the speakers in his vision allude to Isaiah 34 not by way of grabbing colorful OT language for flavor (a very reductive way of looking at it), but because in each case what is being revealed to John has already been revealed to Isaiah, and the Spirit wants the readers of Revelation to understand that these prophetic passages are to be read concordantly. They’re talking about, and revealing, the same eschatological reality.

    Edom comes in for special mention this eschatological context because, unlike Egypt or Assyria or Babylon, it was an enemy people throughout the whole long history of Israel and Judah. Empires came and went, but Edom was always breathing down their neck, ready to persecute them (connecting Edom with the persecution organized by the beast in Rev. 13).

    There was no time in the lifetime of Isaiah–or, for that matter, any time in history at all–when Edom’s streams flowed with burning pitch. This is a hyperbolic eschatological picture. As an eschatological picture, it is clearly neither literal in terms of what it pictures (the whole land being a giant sulfurously burning asphalt parking lot, v. 9) nor in the duration of what it pictures.

    The soundest approach to Isaiah 34 and Revelation 14 and 20 is not (a) Isa. 34 was a prophecy of a judgment that happened in history, therefore we know it is finished, and because it is finished, we know that its language of everlastingness is not literal, but (b) Isa. 34, understood according to its own logic as an eschatological oracle, begs to be understood in a non-literal way both in its pictures of a whole land burning with pitch and sulfur and in its statements about the duration of the burning. John’s (the Spirit’s) cross-references to this passage in purely eschatological contexts confirms this.

  • Reese Watt

    Joseph. Thanks for the great article. I think you hit the nail on the head. In addition, I think you can add some additional elements to your argument. Below are some comments I posted on RethinkingHell Facebook page. I believe this point is significant.

    Look closely at the tense of the verbs in that passage. Here’s a summary, with my emphasis in parentheses:

    … if anyone (currently) worships the beast…
    … and (currently) receives a mark…

    … he will (in the future) drink of the wine
    … he will (in the future) be tormented


    … they (currently) have no rest day or night
    … who (currently) worship the beast

    I’ve capitalized THEIR SMOKE GOES UP FOREVER AND EVER to match the way that phrase is handled in Revelation 19:3 in reference to the completed destruction of Babylon:

    Rev 19:3 And a second time they said, “Hallelujah! HER SMOKE RISES UP FOREVER AND EVER.”

    Verse 19:3 is clearly a proclamation of victory – a quote from Isaiah. It’s like the ancient equivalent of saying, ‘Hallelujah, ANOTHER ONE BITES THE DUST”

    Getting back to chapter 14, it is easy to read those same words as a similar proclamation of victory. I think the translators of the Bible should capitalize those words in exactly the same way they do it for Revelation 19:3. After the proclamation of victory, the passage returns back to present tense, saying that those who currently worship the beast currently have no rest.

    If I am correct, then neither the word ‘forever’, nor the phrase ‘no rest day or night’ applies to the period of torment.

    This verse is saying that these people will be tormented in the future, and the result of that torment will be total destruction, just like Edom. Since that fate awaits them, they currently have no rest day or night.

    If anyone has good evidence to dispute this interpretation, I would be glad to hear it.

    • M85

      Yeah, I somewhat agree. It seems to be describing the judgments of chapter 16 as opposed to gehenna. Remember also that Revelation is a sort of mosaic of images regarding the end, John often gives a glimpse of something and then gets back to it later. In this sense it may be depicting the locust scene in chapter 9 as well. The whole scene may be a symbolic reversal of what was happening to Christians in the arena, where they were being tortured in the presence of the emperor and his followers and need not be taken literally.

  • Mark

    This article gives an excellent concise demonstration that Revelation 14:9-11 can very reasonably be interpreted in a way consistent with annihilationism. Thanks!

  • disquswithme

    Good primer! You even raised some of the objections to your view that I think are the strongest.

    I’d like to see more analysis on why Rev 14 should be taken as a statement about the 2nd death rather than the torments described in the more adjacent chapters, especially the reaping, plagues, sores, burning, and wrath immediately following it (chapters 14-16). As Reese Watt commented, the judgment is against those who worship the beast (present tense), after all.

    If one was reading Revelation for the 1st time and had no knowledge of Christian theology, why would he or she suppose that Rev 14 is about something in the distant future? Having finished the book, why would he or she connect those sentences in Rev 14 to “the second death”?

    Thank you!

    • M85

      Exactly my thoughts. Revelation 14 is based on the three angels that announce what is going to happen in the near future: destruction of Babylon, torment of the followers of the beast, and judgment of the earth (Chapters 16, 17,18). In particular Rev 14:9-11 seems to be describing what happens in chapter 16. It doesn’t really fit with a description of the second death. Revelation is also circular in its imagery, so it may be describing the locust plague (chapter 9), when the worshippers of the beast were tormented for five months.

  • John Luther

    The Truth that not even a sparrow falls to the ground to be forgotten by God (Luke 12:6) will convince both the dead and the condemned who hear and will hear God’s voice (John 5:25) to repent and believe Jesus will have all men saved (1 Timothy 2:4). The way salvation comes is from hearing God’s Word such that faith comes (Romans 10:17). You can deny that faith comes as long as you wish, but faith shall come, even such that you stop denying The Truth. As faith comes, the believer has crossed over from condemnation to life as a New Creation (John 5:24). Christ’s government and peace increases upon every condemned sinner such that all hear, and such that faith comes to all, thereby transforming all (Philippians 3:21), that God may be all in all (1 Corinthians 15:28). The smoke of torment is forever in the same way that Jonah was in the belly of the whale forever (until released). Eternal life is without end (Isaiah 9:7), but any other eternity, or forever, ends upon belief in Christ and crossing over to His eternity to live to Him.

  • Jim O

    Thanks for this article, Joseph. It is very helpful.

    I have wondered about taking the following approach if I was challenged with this passage by an ect’er: “This passage does not address the question of what happens to my unsaved neighbor or uncle, or even the unsaved in general. The principals of it are those who worship the beast and have a mark on forehead/hand. I don’t know of anyone who has died in the last many hundreds of years who falls into that category. The punishment here is for them alone.”

    Is that a valid approach?

    • Bonnie Belle

      2000 years ago, Jesus said there were many antichrists already. The antichrist most definately has a mark on the forehead and hand that is different from those who are marked and sealed for Christ. Note how Nebuchadnezzar received the mind of a beast until seven periods of time passed over his and his sanity was restored. So too, those who worship the beast hear and will hear God’s Word (John 5:25) such that faith comes (Romans 10:17). Even the dead and condemned hear and shall hear. As faith comes to believe, the believer crosses over to life as a New Creation. The punishment is for all who do not believe, and for all who call Him Lord, but do not do as He says. Punishment is intended to correct and discipline the lost soul, even such that every knee shall bow to Christ to be lifted up as a New Creation (Psalm 145:14-15).

      • Jim O

        Interesting. Thanks for taking the time to reply, Bonnie.

  • william lloyd

    Also, they use the term day and night; there will be no day and night in Eternity.

  • Adela New

    Good job, Joseph. Another thing I have noticed about this passage is that the followers of the beast are tormented in the presence of the Lamb and his holy angels, which does not seem to fit with the idea of the New Jerusalem in Revelation 21:4-8:

    “And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes; there shall be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying; and there shall be no more pain, for the former things have passed away. Then He who sat on the throne said, “Behold, I make all things new.” and He said to me, “Write, for these words are true and faithful.” And He said to me, “It is done! I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. I will give of the fountain of the water of life freely to him who thirsts. He who overcomes shall inherit all things, and I will be his God and he shall be My son. But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.”

    Where is the mention of people being tormented forever here? Will unrepentant sinners remain in God’s presence? Isn’t that how the “softer” traditionalists define hell anyway–eternal separation from God? I don’t think you can have it both ways! It would seem that whatever torment Revelation 14:10 refers to is not ongoing, based on this concept alone.

  • Kevin Zeller

    As Jesus was the bringer of hell-fire into the conversation of humankind, wouldn’t it be fine to do away with Him altogether? http://jesusneverexisted.com

  • Roger Harper

    Hi Joey and all,

    Many thanks for addressing these verses. You make as good a case as possible for the view that they are referring to Gehenna, where body and soul are destroyed.

    Another view is that this passage refers to Sheol / Hades. Arguments in favour of this view:
    Day and night are still continuing whereas in the age to come, the ages of ages, the era of Gehenna, day and night will have passed away.
    The word ‘torment’ is a slight variation of the word ‘torment’ used of the Rich Man in Luke 16, which is specifically described as occurring in Hades.
    The exact phrase usually translated ‘for ever and ever’ is not in Revelation 14. The ‘for ever and ever’ phrase is literally ‘to the ages of ages.’ In Revelation 14 we read ‘to ages of ages,’ no ‘the.’ If we believe that every small part of Scripture is useful for our teaching etc, we need to take seriously that the better translation here is ‘for ages and ages.’ This is consistent with Hades, not Gehenna.
    The presence of the holy angels and of the Lamb. This presence, mirroring the presence of the same in the heavenly realm earlier in the chapter, is inconsistent with Gehenna, which Jesus says involves leaving his presence: ‘Depart from me…’ Mth 25, and Revelation says involves being outside the City, while the Lamb is specifically inside the City.

    Yes we need to let Scripture interpret Scripture, but you have used a little Old Testament to the exclusion of the Jesus in the Gospels and in Revelation. Much better, more Biblical, to listen to Jesus first, then NT writers, and then to Moses and Elijah.

    What is your understanding of the people destroyed in Gehenna being in the presence of the holy angels and of the Lamb? This is the moon-walking bear in your argument, as in that of many people, including traditionalists!

    Thanks for having me as part of the conversation,


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